Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Counterterrorism and home grown terrorist

The problem posed by terrorism has received serious attention not only in this country but also in the international community. It poses a real menace and challenge to the nation peace and security, harming the life, dignity and safety of the innocent people. This also weakens the economy and put dangers in all aspect of the states activity. The September 11 terrorist attacks on New York and Washington D. C. killed citizens from 83 countries and (according to the United Nations estimates) cost the global economy at least 350 billion dollars.Terrorism is proving to be the dark side of globalization, and because of it, new challenges to the country have emerged. In order to deal with such a complex phenomenon, it is essential to shape a comprehensive and nuanced strategy. The nation should take serious position against terrorism no matter when, where and what forms it occurs, or whom it is targeted. All agencies of the government, local or national, including every individual should st ep up their cooperation in preventing and combating terrorism. How serious a threat is homegrown terrorism in the United States?Experts say it is quite likely that the next terrorist attack will not be the work of well-trained al-Qaeda operatives sent from abroad, but rather that of an American citizen. As al-Qaeda leaders focus more of their energy on trying to inspire others to commit acts of terror, most security and counterterrorism officials believe their message will resonate with at least some small number of Americans. Such fears tend to focus on American Muslims, and experts say this is logical given recent events in Europe.Yet the American Islamic community also has proven one of the government’s best resources for preventing the emergence of homegrown Islamic terrorists. Richard A. Falkenrath, New York City’s deputy police commissioner for counterterrorism, recently told the Senate Homeland Security Committee that the possibility of a ‘homegrownâ€℠¢ terrorist attack against New York City or any other American city is real and is worsening; it is hard to anticipate the motives or actions of a homegrown terrorist.Yet despite the high probability of a homegrown terrorist attack, experts say such an event is likely to have a relatively small impact when compared to attacks by conventional terrorist networks but it should be cautioned that self-radicalized individuals and groups can become far more dangerous when they reach out for support from more established terrorist networks. BODY: I. Combating Terrorism: To combat the terrorism, expert stresses the need to grasp two aspects of terrorism: Its root causes and its technological Complexity.The root causes of terrorism, both domestic and international, are varied and complex. One set of factor is essentially ideological and includes religious and ethno nationalistic extremism. Second is the technological complexity, the new terrorist are distinguished by their general ability to use new information and communication technologies. They are also fully able to exploit technology to enhance their illegal transnational activities (Banlaoi, 2004). II. Three factors that must be considered in dealing with terrorism:First, it must involve the gradual and painstaking winning of the hearts and mind of disaffected peoples, great patience and endurance is required. Second, the political nature of the campaign against terror suggests that such a comprehensive strategy cannot be pursued without full cognizance of the potential negative consequences of any action contemplated. Thirdly, a comprehensive strategy must be implemented within a substantive multilateral framework, and ensure the fullest regional participation.There should be four key of such a strategy, socio economic, coercive, political and technical. Socioeconomic measures, poverty and extreme socioeconomic marginalization are root causes of terrorism. These may be the result of either deficient domestic poli cies or powerful globalization processes. Hence developed countries should increase trade, investment and aid linkages with developing countries to enhance their capacities for good governance.Coercive Measures, Strong legal enforcement measures such as freezing of assets and detentions of individuals suspected of complicity in terrorist plots, are the first line attack in the campaign against terror. Political Measures, terrorist by definition fight for a political cause, perceived as ‘just’ or otherwise. Terrorist groups also often feed upon political issues for support/ such as grievances and opposition to illegal and armed occupation, oppression, and abuse and denial of civil and political rights.Technical Measures, It is vitally important that the capacity of the terrorist to plan, fund and implement their activities must be targeted (Banlaoi, 2004). III. The country’s practical measures against terrorist are the following: (1) Identification of terrorist,(2 ) Location and tracking identified terrorists, (3). apprehension of identified terrorist, (4). Prosecution of the identified terrorist and (5), Punishment of the guilty terrorist (Marchetti,1976) IV. Anti terrorism program: A. There are four (4) basic program components associated with the anti terrorist program.The prevention which focuses on international initiative and diplomacy to discourage foreign states from supporting terrorism second is deterrence which emphasizes protection and security and efforts-essentially target hardening-to discourage terrorist acts, thirdly, the reaction, this consist of operations in response to specific major acts of terrorism and lastly is prediction, this includes intelligence and counterintelligence efforts in continues support of the three other program components B. The specific anti-terrorist measures developed and used in fighting terrorismIncludes close international screening of all airlines and passengers for metallic objects, tighter se curity of diplomatic installations, compilation of watch list terrorist, adoption of measures to sow dissention within terrorist group thru black and gray covert operations. V. Ways to fight Terrorism: A. There follows a general measures in fighting terrorism, this are protection of terrorist targets. The terrorist commonly attack strong points such as airports, communications and national offices.Another is the need to expand intelligence gathering in order to initiate particular course of action and forestall the plan of the enemy. The community must also be train for trouble; this will be possible by preparing them to any unusual occurrence like terrorist attacks. The country should improve international cooperation and negotiate flexibly. Others are don’t rule rescues, lean on terrorist allies, order selective reprisals, crack down on unsafe airports and tighten airport and seaport security. B.Psychological operations (PSYOPS) approaches in countering terrorist threats. 1 . Widespread educational program directed at audience in the affected areas will expose threat to stability and the quality of life by those threat groups 2. High visibility amnesty and â€Å"secret witness† programs could directly attack the organizational integrity and solidarity of those threat groups. 3. Target the rivalries and jealousy existing in those threat groups. 4. Develop constructive relationship among the various disputants to enhance high level diplomatic talks. C.To develop terrorism counteraction plans and programs, it is necessary to conduct threat studies, to provide an understanding of the capabilities and intentions of terrorist groups, Vulnerability surveys, to reveal the weakness that terrorist can attack and Analysis of all the effects of terrorism. D. PSYOPS doctrine prescribes the use off â€Å"Propaganda Analysis† to determine the effects of activities, programs or campaigns. The basic approaches in this procedure are analysis of Source, Con tents, Audience, Media, and Effects (SCAME). Propaganda is the primary vehicle of psychological warfare.It includes any activity that affects emotion, attitude and behavior of a target audience (Marchetti, 1976) HOME GROWN TERRORISM: Scott Redd, director of the National Counterterrorism Center, said in a written statement to the Senate that the emergence of home-grown terrorist groups is posing â€Å"real challenges† for U. S. authorities despite law enforcement successes at disrupting potential attacks. Most security and counterterrorism officials believed that the next terrorist attack will not be the work of well-trained al-Qaeda operatives sent from abroad, but rather that of an American citizen.The White House’s National Strategy for Combating Terrorism says the main terrorist threat today comes from those who â€Å"exploit Islam and use terrorism for ideological ends. † Experts say individuals who are likely to adopt a terrorist ideology share several qual ities: youth, unemployment, feelings of alienation, a longing to feel self-importance, and a need to be part of a group. Religion can be compelling to such individuals, who are then prone to exploitation by deceitful religious leaders. R. P.Eddy, senior fellow for counterterrorism at the Manhattan Institute, says, â€Å"If you think of any ethnic community in this country†¦there are people of all stripes. † However, he suggests counterterrorism efforts should pay close attention to Muslim communities in the United on lessons from the attacks in Madrid in 2003 and London in 2004, which originated in Muslim communities. The White House’s National Strategy for Combating Terrorism says that the main terrorist threat today comes from those who â€Å"exploit Islam and use terrorism for ideological ends.† Experts say individuals who are likely to adopt a terrorist ideology share several qualities: youth, unemployment, feelings of alienation, a longing to feel self -importance, and a need to be part of a group. Religion can be compelling to such individuals, who are then prone to exploitation by deceitful religious leaders. The relationship between American Muslims and homegrown terrorism. Though many of the homegrown terrorists identified in the United State especially since the 9/11 attacks have been Muslims, it is important to note that religious motivations are not present in all instances.It is suggested that counterterrorism efforts should pay close attention to Muslim communities in the United States, where al-Qaeda’s message of radical Islam is more likely to resonate. How have Muslim communities in the United States responded to the growing concern over homegrown terrorists? By and large, American Muslims express great concern over the prospect of homegrown terrorists in their midst. To this end, members of Islamic communities have worked to establish good relationships with U. S. officials, particularly on the local level.Huss ein Ibish, executive director of the Hala Salaam Maksoud Foundation for Arab-American Leadership, says in terms of counterterrorism efforts, â€Å"Most of the major successes the government claims within the United States have actually involved cooperation with the local Muslim communities. How have U. S. officials reacted to the prospect of homegrown terrorists? Experts judge government responses as mixed. Generally speaking, the local approach proves most effective. Eddy says local police are the best tool the government has for preventing homegrown terrorists.Good community policing—establishing relationships and keeping abreast of trends in a neighborhood â€Å"based on common interests other than terrorism†Ã¢â‚¬â€underpins any effort to detect a homegrown plot. Eddy views officers as â€Å"first preventers and not just as first responders,† but it remains incumbent on political leaders to support them as such Home-grown cells were a new domestic phenomeno n for which the FBI and law enforcement agencies had no â€Å"baseline† for measuring the scale of the problem CONCLUSION: Terrorism is a crime committed by a handful of extremist elements and should not be ad equated with any specific ethnic group or religion.Under no circumstances should double standards in applying this principle be allowed. To fight terrorism effectively requires efforts to address its ideological, socioeconomic and political root causes. This should involve strategies aimed at currently solving both current problems and identifying permanent solutions in the long run. An important prerequisite in this connection is to resolve the question of development and narrow the gap between the rich and the poor. The so called war on terror is not just a war that can be won by sole reliance on military and coercive measures.Recommendation: The country should review and strengthen national mechanism to combat terrorism. Efforts in suppressing sources of funds must b e doubled. The country needs to continuously deepen seeking cooperation from allies’ country in enforcing anti-terrorist program and practices. Develop regional capacity building programmed to enhance existing capabilities to detect, monitor and report terrorist acts and plans. Strengthen cooperation at the bilateral, regional and international levels in combating terrorism in a comprehensive manner and affirm that at the international level.Convene a high level of ad-hoc experts group as the lead to anti terrorism that will continue to focus on the preventions and control of terrorism. To better deter and prevent potential acts of terrorism at home, the state should enact law that will restrict the movement of those who pose a terrorist threat to the community to include organizations which advocate terrorism. Holds accountable all public and private organizations abetting terrorism; Calls for greater vigilance and concrete measures against all possible terrorist supplies, m aterials and finances.The country should designate Cabinet Oversight Committee on Internal Security as the lead to anti terrorism. Americans had to accustom to new security measures that complicated their travel, work, and recreation. United States agencies rearranged their priorities, and local governments scrambled to make preparations for potential terrorist attacks, possibly involving biological, chemical, or even nuclear weapons. References Banlaoi, 2004, War on Terrorism, Rex Bookstore Inc. , Recto Avenue Desker, B. , and Kumar R. ,( 2002) Forging an Indirect Strategy in Southeast Asia.† The washington Quarterly, Volume 25, No. 2 Dulles, A. , (1972) The Craft of Intelligence, New York, wermer paperback, Marchetti, V. (1976), The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence, New York, Pell Agam, H. ,(2001) â€Å"Measure to Eliminate International Terrorism† New York, Paper Back. Ganor, B. (2003)Defining Terrorism: Is One Man’s Terrorist Another Man’s Freedom Figh ter†, http://terror. host. net. kg Homer, D. (2003) The Rise of Complex Terrorism, http//www. Foreignpolicy. com http://counterterrorism. org/mt/pings. cgi/3655 .

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

An unknown variety of lizards of three-toed lizard begin...

An unknown variety of lizards of three-toed lizard begin to attack children in Costa Rica. What is left of a howler’s monkey lunch, a three-toed lizard, is sent to a lab in the University of Columbia, where a lab technician believes it’s a dinosaur, so they call a renowned paleontologist, Dr. Alan Grant. When Grant receives a fax of the lizards x-rays, they are shocked to see that it is in fact the bones of a dinosaur. Before he can do any research on the dinosaur, Grant and his partner, Dr. Ellie Sattler, are sent off to an island off of Costa Rica, known as Isla Nublar, as consultants for InGen, a bioengineering firm. ` John Hammond, the owner of InGen and an important financial supporter of Grant’s fossil digs, has made a zoo of†¦show more content†¦Meanwhile, the power outage has left Grant, Malcolm, the park publicist Ed Regis, and Hammond’s two grandchildren, Tim and Lex, stuck in their electrified guided-tour cars just outside the tyrannosaurus paddock. Looking through her binoculars, Lex notices that some small dinosaurs have left on a supply ship that has just left the island. The power outage has also disabled the electrified fences around the dinosaur’s paddocks, so the t-rex breaks through the dominant fence, eating Regis and severely injuring Malcolm. Grant and the children are forced to leave onto the park on foot. The park’s game warden, Robert Muldoon, joins with Grant to search the others. They find Malcolm severely injured and take him back to Sattler and the park’s vet, Dr. Harding. Before it gets any worse, Arnold has the computer syste m running again and the power is back on. Malcolm warns that with chaos theory, things will be getting even worse soon. Muldoon and Gennaro got out on a scavenger hunt to find the t-rex. Meanwhile, Grant and the kids make their way back to the visitor center and run into some trouble. They are just barely able to run away from some pterodactyls and the t-rex again. Grant eventually finds some evidence proving that the dinosaurs have been reproducing, even though the scientists stated that all dinosaurs were female. When they go back to the lodge, the power goes out again and the velociraptors-very smart and vicious small

Monday, December 30, 2019

Anabolic steroids can change a person - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 630 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/10/30 Category Sports Essay Level High school Tags: Steroids Essay Did you like this example? Dear School Board, As the new high school in Indiana, there are a couple of issues to discuss to maintain a healthy and successful environment for our students to excel in their education. It has come to our attention that anabolic steroids are becoming an issue among students, yet there are not many policies in place for this type of abuse. If by any chance the words Gear, Juice, Roids, and Stackers are used please stay alert as they are common names for anabolic steroids. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Anabolic steroids can change a person" essay for you Create order I am writing to the school board to inform about how deadly the use of anabolic steroids can be and how we should work to eradicate it from our schools. Medical prescriptions for anabolic steroids are emplaced for patients who need help to gain weight after a severe illness or injury. It can also be used for certain types of breast cancer in women, anemia, and hereditary angioedema. Although, anabolic steroids can be prescribed, when they are abused the dosage is about 10 to 100 times higher. Anabolic steroids may be misinterpreted as a positive life changing drug in the eyes of high schoolers as it can take away pain and improve performance and appearance physically. When athletes are inflicted with the idea of needing to always take home first place then they may resort to things such as steroids to better their chances in achieving the goals placed on them. In the same way if students are placed with exorbitant amount of pressure it can be an outlet to relieve pain. There are different ways that people can abuse anabolic steroids such as taking them orally, through a needle, or applied to the skin as a cream. The use of anabolic steroids raises many harmful effects since it is adding extra male sex hormones, testosterone, into the body. Steroids are different from other types of drug abuse as they do not increase the chemical dopamine in the brain that creates the high making it addictive. Although, a long term use of steroids can disrupt the pathways in the brain, for dopamine, serotonin, and opioids. In the short run it can cause paranoia, jealousy, irritability, delusions, and impaired judgment which are all mental problems. If it is habitually used then long term effects like kidney problems, liver failure, and heart problems can arise. It can lead to a high blood pressure and put students at a higher risk of stroke or heart attack. All of these effects can derail students from focusing on what matters in these important four years of their lives. Another issue also arises since this drug can be injected into the muscles using a needle. If needles are being shared and not cleaned pro perly that can cause students to transmit HIV/AIDS. After gathering all this information on how anabolic steroids can change a person completely there should be policies in place to avoid them. Since it is a drug that can enhance performance level all sports players should be required to take a urine test before making their respective teams. Effects of anabolic steroids should be something everyone is required to learn about; it will educate the students on how harmful this substance abuse can be. Even though there are rules being set in place to avoid this abuse, if a student breaks any of the rules there will be consequences. The student will be immediately taken out of their sport and given detention. All steroids will be confiscated from the student and parents will be alerted. If the substance abuse is very severe it can even lead to suspension or expulsion from our school. I would hope to see these policies be put in place as soon as possible since it is a major topic that this district takes very seriously.

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Volunteering at the Colorado State Fair Lost Child Center...

When I heard that I needed some 5 hours of community service hours for my AAA class, I was disappointed for a while. I thought that I would need to go one some special mission there and back again,... or something like that. I was glad when I leaned that any community service hours that you had performed that summer counted towards the 5 hour goal, and just this summer I had volunteered at the Colorado State Fair Lost Child Center. The Co. State Fair Lost Child Center is generally operated by my Civil Air Patrol Crew CO-RMR-179, also known as the Pueblo Eagles. This year my squadron became a venturing crew too, (Venturing is a branch of Boy Scouts) because this year we decided to perform the Lost Child Center as a Venturing crew, and†¦show more content†¦Some of the skills I was able to develop and items I was able to learn during my time at the Colorado State Fair lost Child Center are as follows: General Communication, our crew needed to be able to communicate with each ot her quickly and effectively in order to find the lost person. Radio Communication, we were not able to be within yelling distance the whole time, so we needed to understand how to use radios effectively. Calming People Down, some of the parents, and/or children that came to us when their child/sibling got lost would be agitated, and we would need to calm them down. Persons Recognition, our crew had to be able to recognize people from descriptions, sometimes limited to the person’s age and hair color. Maps Understanding and Navigation, although not always, but sometimes the people would tell us where they last saw said lost person, and we would need to the location, and canvas that area before the person got too far. Lots, and lots of running and walking, to find lost persons we would need to be actively walking through the State Fair, and need to run to the said position before the person got too far, although we did get occasional breaks. I believe that the Colorado State F air Lost Child Center helped me to learn, and develop skills that would otherwise go unlearned. I enjoyed doing this service, and managed to help my community and state in the process. Although my feet hurt after I was done,Show MoreRelatedGsk Annual Report 2010135604 Words   |  543 Pagesfrom the ï ¬ ling date. However the long development time for pharmaceutical products may result in a substantial amount of this patent life being used up before launch. 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Friday, December 13, 2019

A passion for practicing medicine in Developing Country Free Essays

A life with purpose is a life without misery. While yet many choose purpose out of a mere likeness, I have chosen mine out of interest, vision and passion. To live beyond a committed life in the world of medicine is my focal point. We will write a custom essay sample on A passion for practicing medicine in Developing Country or any similar topic only for you Order Now Yes, an opportunity to live a noble future that reflects constantly on the healing assignment, making people appreciate the privilege of breath. Of more interest of course, is the agendum to study medicine.A worthwhile career to contribute to life, making the world a better place to live. Health is wealth, so says a common saying. The study of health hence is the study of wealth. I am quite positive that my interest dwells in the study of medicine not only for a mere need to able to treat the ill ones, but a mission to spread the awareness of the need of good living and good health to all and sundry. Awareness that many of human ways bring about many diseases. Very few is aware that there are many more lethal diseases than AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).Diseases like Bird flu, Cancer, Leukemia, SARS, to mention but few, are relatively unaddressed by many. Another issue that needs attention is the nutritional intake of human. Good nutrient does not only strengthen the body system, it also allows the body to resist some diseases. In the developed world, many eat and overfeed yet without taking the necessary nutrient. While in the developing countries, the case is more severe. The reason is not unconnected to the fact that they have shortage of food, hence shortage of nutrient necessary for good health. If only there could be more seminars, campaigns, and other media of awareness creation, many could have been saved from many diseases. I will like to join the presently available campaign teams across the world. Bodies like WHO (World Health Organization), USAID and lot more are doing a great job in sensitizing the entire globe on several health issues. Better still, if given all I require, I will like to create a new body that will focus on the developing countries. The Old and the young in the developing countries go through so much concerning their health.Unaware of repercussions of many of their ways, hence leading to many diseases. They are locked up in a vicious circle of ill-health simply because of their poverty which does not afford them good health care. Countries like Somalia, Angola, Nigeria, to mention only but few among others, they need face lift in their attitudes towards their health schemes. Many children die of malaria or typhoid and yet many crippled by polio. These are diseases that could be cured or prevented with just a vaccination or some other simple drugs as the case may be. Of more focus is the old, weak and fragile both physically and emotionally. They suffer dissertation and low appetite. Their psychological status is assumed defective; they feel an aura of rejection. The chewing skill is increased but without enhancement, for their teeth become weak like cotton. Of more concern to me are the aged ones in the developing country, where the government of the masses cares less for the aged ones. Retired with little or no pension, living a practical vicious circle of no income, no health. I wish I could grow up in skill and knowledge in medicine vastly to help these people crying out everyday. For long, I have watched mentors making things happen in the world of health; it is high time I joined the train and contributed my own quota, lest it will be late. How to cite A passion for practicing medicine in Developing Country, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Living in a Different Country free essay sample

I am not your average American teenager. I am a US citizen, born April 25 in San Antonio, Texas, but I have never lived in the USA. I moved to France when I was an infant. I have always resided in Paris, France. I am bilingual English-French : my Dad is French. I went to a French elementary school and now I attend an international high school. I hated French school – not that I knew any better at the time. I’d have to say that one of my first memorable milestones is when my mom took me out of French School in 3rd Grade and I started attending the International School of Paris. European schools have a reputation for being memorizing machines and they are. The memorizing is not so bad†¦it’s the oral reciting afterwards. When I was in elementary school, I didn’t like speaking up in class. At the international school – I didn’t have to. We will write a custom essay sample on Living in a Different Country or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I was left in peace, which ultimately gave me the confidence to speak up when I was ready a couple of years later. I not only speak French and know French culture, but I also enjoy going to school with students from 60 other countries around the world. I experience France and â€Å"world cultures† every day. The impact of attending an international school is enormous because I have learned respect and acceptance for all cultures. There is no prejudice that I can detect. The entire community is a genuine melting pot. I was able to observe this calmly and securely during my first years of high school. One of the great advantages of going to an international school where 60 nationalities are represented is that most teachers make efforts to understand and be understood†¦their students and their students’ parents. Now I communicate every day in several languages with students and teachers who come from the US, Europe and from other parts of the world. I realize that communication is not always verbal. I have been able to observe customs and become sensitive to a whole variety of issues. This has made me more resourceful and more flexible. It also gives me a lot of confidence in my ability to listen to people and to relate to them. Just think of it : an international school in Paris ! That’s a wonderful education in itself. A lot of that education has been history; I am deeply interested in history, especially military history. The proximity and remnants of countless conflicts throughout the centuries are everywhere to be seen and touched in Paris and in France. From Roman ruins, to the Napoleon’s Tomb to Omaha Beach in Normandy, I have been surrounded by conquests and battlefields. I have had the privilege of visiting the Normandy beaches and battlefields and I am particularly fascinated by American military history, specifically World War II. Normandy would have to be another milestone – both the region because it reminds me of North Carolina where my Mom is from – and the history – the Norman Conquest – The Normandy Theater in WWII. I’ve spent a lot of time in Normandy where I first started enacting my life in the military; where my first plans to join the military took shape bivouacking in the garden. What I’ve never been able to find in France are many people who share my goal of joining the US Armed Forces. There aren’t any other students at my school who plan to have a career in the US Marines. Therefore, in France as well as when I travel to the US, I have an unusual point of view and, paradoxically, I realize that living in a different country has given me a strong sense of patriotism. I cherish the moments that I spend Stateside. I feel like I’m coming home to a place that I already know well and at the same time that I am curious and eager to discover. I have a special excitement and motivation to learn more and to assume my American heritage. Living abroad has strongly contributed to my plan to study and train in the USA so that I can serve in the United States Armed Forces. I want to commission to become an officer in the US Marine Corps. I believe that my background as an international student has prepared me well for my future studies in the US and for my future career in the US Marines. It has enabled me to learn in an IB school and also to learn and prepare independently on my own. The Marines are the image of America, her history and traditions and I am committed to this career to represent and protect the ideals of the USA. This is a huge valuable lesson that I have learned†¦.living abroad in France.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Analysis of John Berrymans Dream Song Essay Example

Analysis of John Berrymans Dream Song Paper In his poem, Berryman presents the reader with the image of a deeply troubled, sad and lonely man and the half life that he is living. The voice of the poem is that of an outside narrator looking in on the life of Henry, most likely the persona that Berryman created in his ‘Dream Songs’. Through the poem, Berryman explores the themes of life and the inner demons that can hinder. The first line of the poem creates a hook and sets up the subject matter of the poem; that of a man and his ‘nocturnal habits’, his constantly restless nights. From this opening, we can already see that Henry has many relationships with the opposite sex due the ‘his women’ being plural. Berryman, in fact, was noted for having a series of infidelities during his life, so perhaps this could give evidence for the view that Berryman and his persona Henry were one. The line is further strengthened by the combination of diction and structure; the use of the word ‘terror’ evokes dread in the reader as the connotations are that of an intense and overwhelmingly blinding fear, and the end-stopped line forces the reader to pause and muse on just how Henry invokes terror in his women. We will write a custom essay sample on Analysis of John Berrymans Dream Song specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Analysis of John Berrymans Dream Song specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Analysis of John Berrymans Dream Song specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In this way, Berryman immediately sets the reader up for a fall. Expecting the worst after the word ‘terror’, we are then presented with ‘First it appears he snored’. Such a mundane action almost adds a hint of humour to the melancholy, although Berryman dashes this in the following lines with the images of Henry ‘changing position like a task fleet’. As a fleet is a large formation of ships, Berryman gives the impression that Henry’s tossing and turning is not merely trifling but is so forceful as to disrupt everything, as if there was a fleet of Henry’s committing the action and not just one. Berryman’s diction helps to shape the image of Henry as a ‘lost’ man. The words ‘inhuman’ and ‘death-like’ present Henry as someone who does not appear at all human; he is a ghost of man. This is only emphasised by ‘you’ll admit it was no way to live/ or even keep alive. ’- showing that the persona is barely surviving, keeping himself together with ‘drugs and alcohol’, which present a vicious circle as these would further distort his mind. Berryman himself was an alcoholic and was hospitalised for exhaustion and nerves many times in his life, further adding weight to the idea that Henry was just an outlet for Berryman’s feelings. Berryman emphasises the dramatic nature of Henry’s sleeping habits through his pairings of strong verbs ‘thrashed tossed’, ‘sweating shaking’, the alliteration and the use of the ampersand reflecting the fact that these actions go on and on, continuously terrorising his sleep. The structure of the poem is just as important as Berryman’s diction in shaping the themes. The poem has seventeen lines and is structured in two stanzas, the line lengths uneven. Berryman’s rhythms are dictated by the pauses he creates, both slowing and quickening the pace. For instance, the rhythms in the centre of the poem are fast, reflecting Berryman’s period of intense action; ‘reading new mail, writing new letters, scribbling excessive Songs. ’ ‘Songs’ here is capitalised, possibly referring to Berryman’s work of poetry about Henry, the Dream Songs. The rhythm and the themes are also aided by Berryman’s use of images of sound. The alliteration in the poem is harsh sounding, the repetition of consonants such as ‘h’ (Henry’s habits), ‘w’ (‘women’s wrongs’), the harsh ‘c’ sound (‘couldn’t keep’), ‘t’ (to the old tune) and ‘g’ (gotta give good’) further the troubled mood of the poem; for instance, the The poem is rife with sibilance, ‘sweating shaking: something’s’; the ‘s’ sounds create an almost unsettling air as if they are echoing through the night. The line ‘back then to bed, to the old tune or get set’ is filled with imagery of sound, the alliteration of the ‘t’ and ‘b’ sound force the reader’s pace to quicken before a sort of climax produced by the internal rhyme of ‘get set’; Berryman using the two words to bring the reader to a sudden pause before presenting us with his most striking image, that of the ‘stercoraceous cough’. Berryman’s diction here is perfect as the ‘c’ sounds running through the two words reflect the sound of a harsh cough, allowing the reader to hear it for themselves. Berryman’s rhyme scheme is actually a rather traditional pattern of ABCABC DEFDEF GHHGH. However, despite most of the rhymes being full, such as ‘back’ and ‘track’, ‘scribbling’ and ‘quibbling’, the use of enjambment throughout the poem makes the reader stop only when Berryman wants us to, which ensures that the rhyming is extremely subtle. Hence instead of unifying the poem, as the rhyme is not evident immediately to the reader it seems to create an unsettled atmosphere that aids the picture of a tortured soul. Berryman skilfully utilises a blend of aural imagery and carefully chosen words to paint a melancholy picture of tormented man. The varied rhythms in the poem reflect the tumultuous nature of Henry’s ‘nocturnal habits’; the slow and fast paces coincide with Henry’s intermittent sleep and subsequent frenzied periods of action. The advice of the unnamed outside ‘narrator’, ‘something’s gotta give’, ends the poem; something has to be done in Henry’s life as, if he continues on this path and wakes ‘for good at five’ each morning for normal life, it is evident that he will drive himself to the grave.